Agriculture makes a significant contribution to Scotland’s rural economy with pork, beef and lamb producers contributing over £2 billion to Scotland’s annual GDP.

Horticulture, too, makes an important contribution to Scotland’s economy. Scotland has favourable climatic growing conditions for seed potatoes and soft fruit and vegetables.  It is an advanced sector supported by a strong research and innovation system.

Circular economy is gaining momentum in Scotland. A circular economy strategy making things last puts focus on the manufacturing industry as a driver for circularity. Relevant networks include Zero Waste Scotland, Circular Edinburgh and Circular Glasgow.

A growing and successful games and film industry has developed around Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dundee. Other growing sectors include sustainable energy, engineering and technology, particularly in life sciences and health. In 2017 the Netherlands was the largest export destination for Scottish goods and services.

Scotland lies in the north of the UK and has two major economic clusters:

  • Edinburgh: the UK’s second-largest financial centre
  • Aberdeen: a major hub for the oil and gas industry.
Image: ©Dutch Embassy


Total output (GDP), 2020                       

£205 billion      

GDP per head (2019)



Number of businesses, 2020


Annual % change in businesses, 2020


Import (2020)

  • Value goods from the world: £
  • Value goods from the Netherlands: £ (% of total UK imports) 
  • Main partners: 
  • Main products: Gas, natural & manufactured

Export (2018)

  • Value goods from the world: £85 billion
  • Value goods from the Netherlands:  £ 
  • Main partners: 
  • Main products: 
Image: ©Dutch Embassy